The Pathway of Light
The eye is a very intricate and complex organ containing over 2 million parts. For this reason, there are many sub-specialities in ophthalmology and optometry. One of these specialties is the retina, which is similar to the film in a camera.
The front of the eye is responsible for focusing light to the retina. The cornea, is the clear tissue found on the surface of the eye. This tissue focuses the light to the lens, which lays behind the iris or colored portion of the eye.
From the lens, light is then focused to the retina. Once reaching the retina, the light stimulates microscopic cells which send electrical impulses to the optic nerve. These impulses continue to travel through the nerve until reaching the primary visual cortex in the brain.
The brain then translates these electrical impulses into the images we perceive. Understanding the pathway of light to the brain will allow you to fully understand the function of the retina and it's roll in your vision.